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  • Freely Available from IEEE

    Why Net Neutrality Analogies Will Always Fail [News]

    Romero, J.J.
    Spectrum, IEEE

    Volume: 52 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/MSPEC.2015.7065401
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 10 - 12

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

  • Freely Available from IEEE

    Is This The Age of Alternative Nuclear Power? {News]

    Lamonica, M.
    Spectrum, IEEE

    Volume: 52 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/MSPEC.2015.7065402
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 12 - 13

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

    An Efficient I/O-Redirection-based Reconstruction Scheme for Erasure-Coded Storage Clusters

    Huang, J. ; Qin, X. ; Liang, X. ; Xie, C.
    Computers, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: PP , Issue: 99
    DOI: 10.1109/TC.2015.2394399
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1

    IEEE Early Access Articles

    This paper addresses an I/O interference problem encountered in on-line reconstruction of erasure-coded storage clusters, where user I/Os compete with reconstruction I/Os for both disk and network bandwidth. We propose a redirection scheme called ‘RAM-RS’ to minimize the I/O interference among user and reconstruction requests. RAM-RS redirects user read/writes targeted at failed nodes to an RS-coded RAM region, which is formed by pre-allocated main memory in surviving nodes in the RS-coding manner. The RS-coded RAM region quickly serves all user read/write misses; therefore, a rebuilding node can devote its disk and network bandwidths to the node reconstruction. The RAM region substantially reduces the amount of data rebuilt by the rebuilding node, because (1) missed writes are buffered in the RAM region and (2) missed reads are satisfied by using surviving nodes to co-rebuild failed blocks. We build two Markov models to estimate the reliability of the RAM-RS system. Modeling results demonstrate that the MTTDL of RS-coded RAM region in a storage cluster is larger than that of the same cluster comprised of surviving nodes. We implement both RAM-RS and the traditional Redirection schemes in an erasure-coded storage cluster, on which real-world I/O traces are replayed. Experimental results show that compared with the Redirection scheme running on a 9-node storage cluster, RAM-RS improves system performance in terms of both user response time and reconstruction time by a factor of 1.78 and 1.20, respectively. View full abstract»

  • Freely Available from IEEE

    IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing Edics


    Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 63 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/TSP.2015.2397704
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 275

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

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    Prediction of Speech Intelligibility Using a Neurogram Orthogonal Polynomial Measure (NOPM)

    Mamun, N. ; Jassim, W.A. ; Zilany, M.S.A.
    Audio, Speech, and Language Processing, IEEE/ACM Transactions on

    Volume: 23 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/TASLP.2015.2401513
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 760 - 773

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is an increasingly prevalent condition, resulting from damage to the inner ear and causing a reduction in speech intelligibility. This paper proposes a new speech intelligibility prediction metric, the neurogram orthogonal polynomial measure (NOPM). This metric applies orthogonal moments to the auditory neurogram to predict speech intelligibility for listeners with and without hearing loss. The model simulates the responses of auditory-nerve fibers to speech signals under quiet and noisy conditions. Neurograms were created using a physiologically based computational model of the auditory periphery. A well-known orthogonal polynomial measure, Krawtchouk moments, was applied to extract features from the auditory neurogram. The predicted intelligibility scores were compared to subjective results, and NOPM showed a good fit with the subjective scores for normal listeners and also for listeners with hearing loss. The proposed metric has a realistic and wider dynamic range than corresponding existing metrics, such as mean structural similarity index measure and neurogram similarity index measure, and the predicted scores are also well-separated as a function of hearing loss. The application of this metric could be extended for assessing hearing-aid and speech-enhancement algorithms. View full abstract»

  • Freely Available from IEEE

    Resources

    Ross, P.E.
    Spectrum, IEEE

    Volume: 52 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/MSPEC.2015.7065408
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 21 - 22

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

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    TE-Shave: Reducing Data Center Capital and Operating Expenses with Thermal Energy Storage

    Zheng, W. ; Ma, K. ; Wang, X.
    Computers, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: PP , Issue: 99
    DOI: 10.1109/TC.2015.2394381
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1

    IEEE Early Access Articles

    Power shaving has recently been proposed to dynamically shave the power peaks of a data center with energy storage devices (ESD), such that more servers can be safely hosted. In addition to the reduction of capital investment (capex), power shaving also helps cut the electricity bills (op-ex) of a data center by reducing the high utility tariffs related to peak power. However, existing work on power shaving focuses exclusively on electrical ESDs (e.g., UPS batteries) to shave the server-side power demand. In this paper, we propose TE-Shave, a generalized power shaving framework that exploits both UPS batteries and a new knob, thermal energy storage (TES) tanks equipped in many data centers. Specifically, TE-Shave utilizes stored cold water or ice to manipulate the cooling power, which accounts for 30-40% of the total power cost of a data center. Our extensive evaluation with real-world workload traces shows that TE-Shave saves cap-ex and op-ex up to $2,668/day and $825/day, respectively, for a data center with 17,920 servers. Even for future data centers that are projected to have more efficient cooling and thus a smaller portion of cooling power, e.g., a quarter of today’s level, TE-Shave still leads to 28% more savings than existing work that focuses only on the server-side power. TE-Shave is also coordinated with traditional TES solutions for further reduced op-ex, and integrated with processor throttling to cap the power draw (i.e., power capping). Our hardware testbed results show that TE-Shave can improve the system performance up to 23%. View full abstract»

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    Influence of Preferred Gate Metal Grain Orientation on Tunneling FETs

    Choi, K.M. ; Lee, W. ; Lee, K. ; Park, Y. ; Choi, W.Y.
    Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 62 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/TED.2015.2399018
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1353 - 1356

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The novel effects of preferred gate metal grain orientation on tunneling FETs (TFETs) have been investigated for the first time. It has been observed that TFETs have preferred gate metal grain orientation to lower work-function variation (WFV) unlike MOSFETs. In the case of TFETs, when the metal gate grain orientation with low work function is dominant, the WFV is effectively suppressed. This brief provides a design guideline for the suppression of TFET WFV. View full abstract»

  • Freely Available from IEEE

    [Blank page - back cover]


    Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 63 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/TSP.2015.2397733
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): C4

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

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    A framework for real-time emissions trading in large-scale vehicle fleets

    Häusler, F. ; Faizrahnemoon, M. ; Crisostomi, E. ; Schlote, A. ; Radusch, I. ; Shorten, R.
    Intelligent Transport Systems, IET

    Volume: 9 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1049/iet-its.2013.0153
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 275 - 284

    IET Journals & Magazines

    In this study a framework for the real-time trading of budgeted emission rights between a fleet of participating vehicles is presented. The trading problem is formulated as a utility maximisation or as a utility fairness problem, which can be solved in real time either in a centralised or in a distributed manner. In both cases, the authors illustrate the basic issues that arise when such a framework is realised in practice, and they show the efficacy of the approaches by providing several simulation examples and a realistic case study. View full abstract»

  • Open Access

    Safer user interfaces: A case study in improving number entry

    Thimbleby, H.
    Software Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: PP , Issue: 99
    DOI: 10.1109/TSE.2014.2383396
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1

    IEEE Early Access Articles

    Numbers are used in critical applications, including finance, healthcare, and aviation. User interfaces for number entry in many devices (calculators, spreadsheets, infusion pumps, mobile phones, etc) have bugs and design defects that induce unnecessary errors that compromise their dependability. Focusing on Arabic key interfaces, which use digit keys 0 – 9 , usually augmented with correction keys, this paper introduces a method for formalising and managing design problems. Since number entry and devices such as calculators have been the subject of extensive user interface research since at least the 1980s, the diverse design defects uncovered imply that user evaluation methodologies are ultimately insufficient for critical applications. Likewise, formal methods are not being applied effectively. User interfaces are not trivial and more attention should be paid to their correct design and implementation. The paper includes many recommendations for designing safer number entry user interfaces. View full abstract»

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    Robust Estimation of Non-Stationary Noise Power Spectrum for Speech Enhancement

    Mai, V.-K. ; Pastor, D. ; Aissa-El-Bey, A. ; Le-Bidan, R.
    Audio, Speech, and Language Processing, IEEE/ACM Transactions on

    Volume: 23 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/TASLP.2015.2401426
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 670 - 682

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    We propose a novel method for noise power spectrum estimation in speech enhancement. This method called extended-DATE (E-DATE) extends the d -dimensional amplitude trimmed estimator (DATE), originally introduced for additive white gaussian noise power spectrum estimation in “Robust estimation of noise standard deviation in presence of signals with unknown distributions and occurrences” (D. Pastor and F. Socheleau, IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 1545–1555, Apr. 2012) to the more challenging scenario of non-stationary noise. The key idea is that, in each frequency bin and within a sufficiently short time period, the noise instantaneous power spectrum can be considered as approximately constant and estimated as the variance of a complex gaussian noise process possibly observed in the presence of the signal of interest. The proposed method relies on the fact that the Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) of noisy speech signals is sparse in the sense that transformed speech signals can be represented by a relatively small number of coefficients with large amplitudes in the time-frequency domain. The E-DATE estimator is robust in that it does not require prior information about the signal probability distribution except for the weak-sparseness property. In comparison to other state-of-the-art methods, the E-DATE is found to require the smallest number of parameters (only two). The performance of the proposed estimator has been evaluated in combination with noise reduction and compared to alternative methods. This evaluation involves objective as well as pseudo-subjective criteria. View full abstract»

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    New Methods to Characterize Deterministic Jitter and Crosstalk-Induced Jitter From Measurements

    Sui, C. ; Bai, S. ; Zhu, T. ; Cheng, C. ; Beetner, D.G.
    Electromagnetic Compatibility, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: PP , Issue: 99
    DOI: 10.1109/TEMC.2014.2388236
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1 - 8

    IEEE Early Access Articles

    A small amount of jitter can quickly eat up timing budgets and create timing issues. Precise characterization of deterministic and crosstalk-induced jitter can help isolate and solve issues within high-speed links. Characterizing deterministic and crosstalk-induced jitter is challenging, however, because many types of jitter work together to create the overall jitter profile. Methods are presented in this paper to characterize the deterministic and crosstalk-induced jitter from measurements of total jitter. An improved tail-fit deconvolution method is proposed for characterizing the impact of deterministic jitter in the presence of random jitter. The contribution of random jitter to total jitter is found first, and then that contribution is accounted for to find deterministic jitter. A Wiener filter deconvolution method is also presented for extracting the characteristics of crosstalk-induced jitter from measurements of total jitter made when the crosstalk sources were and were not present. The Wiener filter allows for accurate deconvolution of the measured histograms for total jitter even in the presence of the measurement noise. The proposed techniques are shown to work well both in simulations and in measurements of a high-speed link. View full abstract»

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    A Determination of the Local Acceleration of Gravity for the NIST-4 Watt Balance

    Leaman, E.J. ; Haddad, D. ; Seifert, F. ; Chao, L.S. ; Cao, A. ; Pratt, J.R. ; Schlamminger, S. ; Newell, D.B.
    Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: PP , Issue: 99
    DOI: 10.1109/TIM.2014.2383111
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1

    IEEE Early Access Articles

    A new watt balance is being constructed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in preparation for the redefinition of the International System of Units and the realization of mass through an exact value of the Planck constant. The total relative uncertainty goal for this instrument of a few parts in 10⁸ requires that the local acceleration due to gravity has to be known at the location of a test mass with a relative uncertainty on the order of only a few parts in 10⁹. To make this determination, both the horizontal and vertical gradients of gravity must be known such that gravity may be tied from an absolute reference in the laboratory to the precise mass location. We describe the procedures used to model and measure gravity variations throughout the laboratory and give our results. View full abstract»

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    Phisical Vulnerability Proxies from Remotes Sensing: Reviewing, Implementing and Disseminating Selected Techniques

    Harb, M. ; De Vecchi, D. ; Dell'Acqua, F.
    Geoscience and Remote Sensing Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 3 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/MGRS.2015.2398672
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 20 - 33

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Risk from natural hazards and its direct effect in disrupting human livelihood is of paramount interest for maintaining a sustainable development, and remote sensing can be a valuable tool in collecting relevant information to assess and mitigate risk. This paper focuses on monitoring the vulnerability term of the risk equation, and in particular the physical vulnerability factor using remote sensing imagery. It provides an overview on state-of-the-art methodologies used in extracting a set of selected physical vulnerability indicators. The physical vulnerability of a building is defined as the probability of structural failure in the extreme situation of natural hazards like quakes. Although very difficult to compute precisely, it can be estimated indirectly through a set of representative indicators called ?proxies?. The literature offers different techniques for extracting a set of relevant information items from remote sensing imagery. When optical satellite images are used, both types of information, geometrical and spectral, are useful to extract features connected to proxies. Therefore, algorithms that combine spectral and spatial information would be the more effective choice in exploring the content of the acquired data. The relationship between the set of indicators and the aggregation method is expected to produce a time-changing synoptic view. The extracted information would then be used for mapping and so would support decision-making and help optimizing the selection of a risk management strategy. View full abstract»

  • Freely Available from IEEE

    IROS 2014: Robots Descend on Chicago [Society News]


    Robotics & Automation Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 22 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/MRA.2015.2403991
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 127 - 130

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

  • Freely Available from IEEE

    Message from the General and Program Chairs


    Applications and Computer Vision Workshops (WACVW), 2015 IEEE Winter

    DOI: 10.1109/WACVW.2015.5
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): vii - viii

    IEEE Conference Publications

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    Code-Based Neighbor Discovery Protocols in Mobile Wireless Networks

    Meng, T. ; Wu, F. ; Chen, G.
    Networking, IEEE/ACM Transactions on

    Volume: PP , Issue: 99
    DOI: 10.1109/TNET.2015.2388534
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1

    IEEE Early Access Articles

    In mobile wireless networks, the emerging proximity-based applications have led to the need for highly effective and energy-efficient neighbor discovery protocols. However, existing works cannot realize the optimal worst-case latency in the symmetric case, and their performances with asymmetric duty cycles can still be improved. In this paper, we investigate asynchronous neighbor discovery through a code-based approach, including the symmetric and asymmetric cases. We derive the tight worst-case latency bound in the case of symmetric duty cycle. We design a novel class of symmetric patterns called Diff-Codes, which is optimal when the Diff-Code can be extended from a perfect difference set. We further consider the asymmetric case and design ADiff-Codes. To evaluate (A)Diff-Codes, we conduct both simulations and testbed experiments. Both simulation and experiment results show that (A)Diff-Codes significantly outperform existing neighbor discovery protocols in both the median case and worst case. Specifically, in the symmetric case, the maximum worst-case improvement is up to 50%; in both symmetric and asymmetric cases, the median case gain is as high as 30%. View full abstract»

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    Two Improvements Related to Overcurrent Functions for Bus Protection in Distribution Systems

    Sorrentino, E. ; Navas, M.
    Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: PP , Issue: 99
    DOI: 10.1109/TPWRD.2015.2394509
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1

    IEEE Early Access Articles

    This article shows two improvements related to the overcurrent functions (OCF) for bus protection in distribution systems. The first topic is the use of two high-set definite-time OCF, in conjunction with the inverse-time OCF, for the main circuit breaker (MCB). A zone-interlocking signal can block one high-set definite-time OCF, while the other one is the fastest possible back-up action. The second topic is the inclusion of a back-up function at the MCB for cases of failure of a downstream relay, by using the OCF of this MCB to firstly trip the circuit breaker related to the correspondent downstream feeder. If the OCF of the MCB remains asserted, then this OCF trips the MCB after a suitable coordination time. Both improvements can be implemented by using IEC-61850 standard. View full abstract»

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    Stochastic effects of traffic randomness on the determination of signal change and clearance intervals at signalised intersections

    Wang, F. ; Tang, K. ; Li, K.
    Intelligent Transport Systems, IET

    Volume: 9 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1049/iet-its.2013.0186
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 250 - 263

    IET Journals & Magazines

    Conventional methods of intergreen time design are based on deterministic traffic flow theory and are difficult to fully reflect traffic randomness especially driver's decision differences. This study is to develop a probabilistic model to extensively investigate the effects of traffic flow randomness and driver's decision errors on the determination of intergreen times. An analytical framework was proposed based on a safety reliability model earlier developed by the authors and validated based on field data at a typical high-speed intersection in Shanghai. Then, comprehensive sensitivity analysis was performed to look into the fluctuation of safety reliability towards critical variables as well as their variations and correlations. Two logistic regression models were developed to quantify the effects of each random component on the probabilities of risky behaviour and clearance failure, that is, safety reliability indicators for intergreen intervals. To facilitate easy applications of the proposed approach, a set of scenario analysis were done to calculate the required intergreen intervals under different traffic conditions and safety reliability levels. Application tables were finally provided for signal design, which are able to recommend more sophisticated intergreen times and thus aid the practitioners to select proper intergreen times according to local conditions without complicated calculation. View full abstract»

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    Stem Storage? Not Proven: A Reply to Bermúdez-Otero 2013

    Myler, N
    Linguistic Inquiry

    Volume: 46 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1162/LING_a_00179
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 173 - 186

    MIT Press Journals

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    Experiment and Simulation of the Nonlinear and Transient Responses of GaAs PHEMT Injected With Microwave Pulses

    Zhang, C. ; Wang, H. ; Zhang, J. ; Du, G.
    Electromagnetic Compatibility, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: PP , Issue: 99
    DOI: 10.1109/TEMC.2015.2410491
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1 - 7

    IEEE Early Access Articles

    The nonlinear and transient responses of gallium arsenide pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor (GaAs PHEMT) injected with microwave pulses are studied in this paper. The experimental research results show that the feature of the output power of the GaAs PHEMT is from linear increase to saturation to linear increase again as the input power increases; and the feature of the measured output time domain waveforms is from linearity to saturation to reversion as the input power increases. The simulation model for analyzing the GaAs PHEMT with microwave pulses is established by TCAD. The nonlinear feature of GaAs PHEMT analyzed through simulation is consistent with measurement. In addition, the field, current density, and temperature distribution inside the transistor injected with microwave pulses are discussed. View full abstract»

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    Optimization of Average Rewards of Time Nonhomogeneous Markov Chains

    Cao, X.
    Automatic Control, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: PP , Issue: 99
    DOI: 10.1109/TAC.2015.2394951
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1

    IEEE Early Access Articles

    We study the optimization of average rewards of discrete time nonhomogeneous Markov chains, in which the state spaces, transition probabilities, and reward functions depend on time. The analysis encounters a few major difficulties: 1) Notions crucial to homogeneous Markov chains, such as ergodicity, stationarity, periodicity, and connectivity, no longer apply; 2) The average reward criterion is under-selective; i.e., it does not depend on the decisions in any finite period, and thus dynamic programming is not amenable; and 3) Because of the underselectivity, an optimal average-reward policy may not be the best in any finite period. These issues are resolved by 1) We discover that a new notion, called “confluencity”, is the base for optimization of average rewards of Markov chains. Confluencity refers to the property that two independent sample paths of a Markov chain starting from any two different initial states will eventually meet together; 2) We apply the direct-comparison based approach [3] to the average reward optimization and obtain the necessary and sufficient conditions for optimal policies; and 3) We study the bias optimality with bias measuring the transient reward; we show that for the transient reward to be optimal, one additional condition based on bias potentials is required. View full abstract»

  • Freely Available from IEEE

    MultiTemp 2015


    Geoscience and Remote Sensing Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 3 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/MGRS.2015.2402620
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 7

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

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    Radial photovoltaic junction with single Si nanowire core–shell structure

    Dupré, L. ; Buttard, D. ; Solanki, A. ; Pauc, N. ; Gentile, P.
    Micro & Nano Letters, IET

    Volume: 10 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1049/mnl.2014.0138
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 37 - 39

    IET Journals & Magazines

    A single silicon nanowire core-shell structure has been elaborated. Technological stages of the process are presented. The device results in a P-i-N radial junction: the core is a P-type silicon nanowire encapsulated in an intrinsic thin silicon layer and an N-type doped silicon layer. Scanning electron microscopy observations, as well as the electrical I(V) characterisation on single nanowires, are presented. View full abstract»

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