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    Design considerations relating to non-thermal aspects of passive 2-phase immersion cooling

    Tuma, P.E.
    Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium (SEMI-THERM), 2011 27th Annual IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/STHERM.2011.5767224
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1 - 9

    IEEE Conference Publications

    There is renewed interest in passive 2-phase immersion for cooling power electronics and high performance computers. This can be attributed to recent research showing its performance potential compared with more complex and costly techniques, to innovations that simplify its application and to a general trend toward higher power densities. Though the thermal performance capabilities of passive 2-phase immersion cooling are well documented, the technique is not widely practiced and system designers will find little published information concerning subtler and very critical aspects of system design. There is no manual, for example, concerning practical details like material compatibility, electrical signal integrity (SI), fluid decomposition, management of moisture and light gases, and so on. This paper presents a useful material compatibility test method and explains the mechanisms of distillation and extraction that are intrinsic to a refluxing 2-phase system and by which wetted materials interact with the fluid and each other. It discusses sources, implications and techniques for removal of organic contaminants, water, non-condensable air and fluid thermal decomposition products. Data are presented from sub-20 GHz SI experiments conducted with backplane connectors and microstrip transmission lines submerged in two classes of environmentally sustainable working fluids. It is hoped that this overview will demystify these subjects for designers unfamiliar with passive 2-phase immersion cooling and encourage more widespread adoption of this elegant and proven technology. View full abstract»

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    The merits of open bath immersion cooling of datacom equipment

    Tuma, P.E.
    Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium, 2010. SEMI-THERM 2010. 26th Annual IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/STHERM.2010.5444305
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 123 - 131
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (5)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper discusses the economic and environmental merits of passive 2-phase immersion in semi-open baths of dielectric fluid for cooling datacom equipment such as servers. The technique eliminates the need for hermetic connectors, pressure vessels, seals and clamshells typically associated with immersion cooling and the connectors, plumping, pumps and cold plates associated with more traditional liquid cooling techniques. A board level power density of 11.7W/cm2 can be sustained with 100 cm3 of fluid per kW. The modular 80 kW baths modeled can eject 130 kW per m2 of floor space via water-cooled condensers. It is estimated that 28°C water at 15 gpm could maintain average CPU junction temperatures, Tj<;60°C and 62°C water at 30 gpm could maintain Tj<;85°C, maximizing the availability of the heat for other purposes. Alternatively, the heat can be transferred directly to ambient air without water as an intermediate. The costs and greenhouse gas emissions associated with conservative annual fluid emission estimates are found to be less than those associated with the electrical power required for traditional chassis fans and liquid pumps. Since these fugitive losses occur at one point, more efficient capture techniques can be easily applied. View full abstract»

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